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A pdf of the complete Praxis Comparative Glossary can be downloaded here.

 

From Claim to Compound risk

 

Claim

A request by a supplier for additional payments. This usually arises as a result of change requests but in some cases it can turn into a dispute about costs incurred due to incorrect application of the contract.

Class of service

In PRINCE2 Agile this is a broadly defined category for different types of work. Different classes of service are typically associated with qualitatively different risk profiles, especially with regard to schedule risk and the cost of delay.

Four generic classes of service are widely recognized: ‘standard’, ‘fixed date’, ‘expedite’ and ‘intangible’.

Client

The individual or organisation that commissions the project and will pay for it on handover of the completed output.

Referred to as the customer in PRINCE2.

Close Procurements (12.4)

A PMBoK® guide process that brings contractual arrangements to an end including the settlement of claims and finalisation of contract documentation.

The equivalent in Praxis is the conclude step in the contract management procedure, which would be performed during the demobilise activity of the closure process.

PRINCE2 doesn’t cover procurement in detail but this work could be considered implicit in the hand over products activity in the Closing a Project (CP) process.

In ISO21500 the completed procurements are an output of Close project phase or project.

Close Project or Phase (4.6)

This PMBoK® guide process is used to close down a phase of a project or the entire project. It is equally applicable to projects that have reached their natural conclusion or have been prematurely closed.

This process plans the administrative and contract closure procedures and the activities needed to complete handover of the finished project deliverables. If the project has been terminated prematurely, then this process should investigate and document the causes and actions taken.

In Praxis this work is covered by the activities in the closure process.

The equivalent in PRINCE2 is the Closing a Project (CP) process and in ISO21500 it is Close project phase or project.

Close project phase or project (4.3.7)

This ISO21500 process is used to close down a phase of a project or the entire project. It is equally applicable to projects that have reached their natural conclusion or have been prematurely closed.

This process verifies that the deliverables of the project or phase have been completed and all processes have been completed or terminated.
In Praxis this work is covered by the activities in the closure process.

The equivalent in PRINCE2 is the Closing a Project (CP) process and in the PMBoK® guide it is Close Project or Phase.

Closing (ISO 21500 process group)

The ISO21500 closing group comprises two processes.

It is very similar in scope to the closure process in Praxis, the Closing a Project (CP) process in PRINCE2 and the closing process group in the PMBoK® guide.

Closing a Programme (MSP)

The final process in the MSP transformational flow which covers all the activities involved in closing a programme.

Key elements of this process are:

  • Demobilising the programme organisation
  • Reviewing the programme
  • Ensure support is in place for post-programme benefits realisation activities
  • Ensure governance is in place for any remaining projects

The equivalent in Praxis is the closure process  and in the SPgM it is the Program Closure process

Closing a Project (CP)

The PRINCE2 process that covers all the activities involved in closing a project, including the development of plans for any follow-on actions and post-project review.

The various outputs of the CP activities are all submitted to the Project Board who formally approve closure of the project and issue a project closure notification to the necessary parties.

The equivalent in Praxis is the closure process.

In the PMBoK® guide this is covered by the processes in the closing process group and in ISO21500 by the processes in the process group called simply closing.

Closing process group

This PMBoK® guide process group contains two processes.

It is very similar in scope to the closure process in Praxis, the Closing a Project (CP) process in PRINCE2 and the closing process group in ISO21500.

Closure notification

In PRINCE2 this is a communication from the project board to all stakeholders the project is being closed. This is a trigger for demobilisation.

Closure process

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This Praxis process manages the closure phase of the project or programme life cycle.

The goals of this process are to:

  • close a project or programme that has delivered all its outputs;
  • close a project or programme that is no longer justifiable;
  • review the management of the work and learn lessons.

Note that the first goal does not identify closure as being when the objectives are complete. Objectives may be described as outputs, outcomes or benefits and these are all achieved at different times. Closure is principally concerned with a temporary organisation handing over responsibility for its objectives and disbanding. Where that occurs in the life cycle will depend on how the project or programme was constituted in the first place.

The equivalent in PRINCE2 is the Closing a Project (CP) process.

In the PMBoK® guide this is covered by the processes in the closing process group and in ISO21500 by the processes in the process group called simply closing.

In programme management guides: the equivalent in MSP is the Closing a Programme process and in the SPgM it is the Program Closure process.

Closure recommendation

In PRINCE2 this is a recommendation from the project manager to the project board that the project be closed. If the board are satisfied that the project can be closed they will send out a closure notification.

This recommendation results from the work done in the recommend project closure activity in the Closing a Project (CP) process.

COCOMO

The COnstructive COst MOdel is a software estimating technique that uses estimates of lines of code adjusted by several environmental factors such as:

  • level of complexity;
  • project size;
  • required reliability;
  • levels of ability of team members.

The COCOMO algorithms convert the lines of code into effort based on the environmental factors.

Cohen and Bradford

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Alan Cohen and David Bradford created a six step influencing model for their book ‘Influence Without Authority’1. The overriding principle is that influence is gained through ‘give and take’.

 

  1. Cohen, Allan R., and Bradford, David L., (2005), Influence Without Authority, Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey.

Collaborative negotiation

A form of negotiation that seeks to create scenario where all parties involved get part or all of what they were looking for from the negotiation.

Collect lessons learned (4.3.8)

This ISO21500 process is part of the closing process group and initially gives the impression that all lessons learned are documented at the end of the project. This is not the case and ISO21500 itself says “at some level lessons learned may be outputs of every project management process”.

This process is simply a focus for collating and publishing the lessons learned from throughout the project.

Praxis and PRINCE2 similarly maintain a lessons log throughout the project. This is formally reviewed at the end of each stage and again at the end of the project.

In the PMBoK® guide lessons learned form part of the organisational process assets and therefore will be updated whenever these are an output of a process.

Collect requirements (5.2)

This PMBoK® guide process is concerned with capturing stakeholder wants and needs in order to establish project objectives and scope.

The equivalent in Praxis is the combination of the requirements management procedure and the solutions development procedure.

PRINCE2 deals with requirements capture mainly through its approach to product-based planning. Some aspects of solutions development are covered by the preparation of the project approach as covered by part of the activity called Select the project approach and assemble the Project Brief.

The nearest equivalent in ISO21500 is Define scope.

Commissioning

The commissioning process takes an inactive system and activates it to achieve defined operational standards.

Committed costs

Costs to which the project or programme is contractually obliged to pay, regardless of whether the product or service has actually been delivered or invoiced.

Committed expenditure

See committed costs.

Communication

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Communication is the means by which information is exchanged and a common understanding achieved. Its goals are to:

  • impart relevant information;
  • ensure the information is understood.

In the P3 environment these basic goals are a means to:

  • ensuring that members of the management team understand the objectives and their role in achieving them;
  • building relationships with stakeholders;
  • minimising conflict by avoiding misunderstandings;
  • developing confidence and trust;
  • maintaining the commitment of stakeholders and team members;
  • effective control of the work throughout the life cycle.

In the PMBoK® guide this is covered in the tools and techniques section of the Plan Communications Management process.

ISO21500 and PRINCE2 do not go into detail on models of communication. MSP provides some information on communication in its Leadership and stakeholder engagement theme.

Communication (ISO21500 subject group)

An ISO21500 subject group that provides a set of processes for managing procurement. The processes comprise:

In Praxis, the principles of communication are covered in the communication function; the practicalities of communication are covered in information management and the key function of communicating with stakeholders is covered in stakeholder management.

PRINCE2 doesn’t have a specific communications theme but covers the subject in areas such as organisation and the activities in the PRINCE2 Processes.

The PMBoK® guide and ISO21500 share a very similar structure and the nearest equivalent in the PMBoK® guide is project communication management knowledge area; in ISO21500 it is the communication subject group.

Communication management plan

The PMBoK® guide document that describes the means by which communication with the project’s stakeholders will be planned, structured, monitored and controlled.

In Praxis, this information is contained in the stakeholder management plan. The closest equivalent (although less comprehensive) in PRINCE2 is the communications management strategy. In ISO21500 much of this information will be in a section of the project management plan.

Communication management strategy

The PRINCE2 document that describes the means and frequency of communication with the project’s stakeholders.

In Praxis, this information is contained in the stakeholder management plan; in the PMBoK® guide it is in the communications management plan and in ISO21500 it is in a section of the project management plan.

Communication plan

In Praxis this is a schedule of communication activities. It is based on the general delivery plan format with the scope being stakeholder communications.

While focusing on the timing of communications, the plan may also include their cost, how they will be controlled and how they link to other delivery plans.

A very similar definition of a communication plan is contained in the SPgM.

Communications Planning

A SPgM supporting process from the Program Communications Management topic.

It plans communication with stakeholders. The outputs are a communications plan a stakeholder register that identifies the communication requirements of each stakeholder.

In Praxis this work is primarily covered by the stakeholder management procedure and in MSP by the Leadership and stakeholder engagement theme.

Communities of practice

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Communities of practice (CoPs) are groups of people who share an interest in P3 management or an aspect of P3 management. The goals of these communities are to:

  • share information that helps individuals to develop their skills,
  • help the profession to collectively evolve and improve.

There are three aspects of a community of practice:

  • The domain.
  • The community.
  • The practice.

Communities of practice is also a function in the APM BoK.

Comparative Estimating

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An estimating technique that compares the current project with similar work and adjustments are made for known differences.

Accuracy can be increased by breaking the project into elements and performing a comparison on those elements. This enables more specific differences between the past projects and the current project to be assessed.

This is sometimes referred to as analogous estimating.

Competence

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Dictionary definitions of competence are relatively straightforward and are simply concerned with an individual’s ability to perform a job or roles successfully. A competent project manager is, therefore, someone who is able to successfully manage a project, a competent programme manager is someone who can successfully manage a programme and so on.

In the context of the Praxis framework, the goals of competence are to:

  • define criteria that enable competence to be identified;
  • provide a means of integrating functional and process competencies to support capability maturity.

Praxis also contains a full competency framework.

Competency framework

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Framework

A set of competencies that may be used to define a role.

The APM’s framework is called simply – the APM Competency Framework.

The corresponding PMI® publication is the Project Manager Competency Development (PMCD) Framework and the corresponding APM document is simply called The APM Competency Framework (often abbreviated to APM CF).

Competitive negotiation

A form of negotiation that is about getting the best deal for one party regardless of the needs and interests of the other(s).

Completion date

The date calculated by which the project could finish following careful estimating, planning and risk analysis taking into account resource limits and contingency.

Component Cost Estimation

A SPgM supporting process from the Program Financial Management topic where cost estimates for program components are developed.

Although classified as a Program Definition process it is actually performed throughout the program with estimates being continuously refined and improved.

Praxis addresses this by progressive application of estimating techniques throughout the program life cycle. MSP’s limited coverage of financial matters is covered in the business case theme.

Components

The SPgM term for projects and business-as-usual work packages that collectively make up a program.

Complexity

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Complexity is an indicator of the inter-relationships within a project, programme or portfolio that affect the way it will be managed and the skills needed to manage it.

Since all projects, programmes and portfolios are made up of many inter-related functions and processes, they are all, by the dictionary definition, complex. But of course some are more complex than others.

Compound risk

A risk event that comprises a number of inter-related risk event.

 

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14.Feb.2017Updated to version 1.3 including the PMI's standard for program management

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