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A pdf of the complete Praxis Comparative Glossary can be downloaded here.

 

From Concept to Controlling a stage

 

Concept

The first phase in the APM BoK project and programme life cycle. The equivalent in Praxis is the identification phase and in PRINCE2 it is the phase managed through the Starting up a Project (SU) process.

Concession

In general usage this term usually refers to an offer made by one party during negotiation, in order to gain a concession in return.

In PRINCE2 the term is used to describe an off-specification that is accepted by the project board as not needing corrective action.

Concurrent Engineering

In engineering projects, concurrent engineering shortens timescales by overlapping phases. For example, as soon as sufficient preliminary design work has been done, detailed design work will commence. As soon as sufficient detailed design has been done, procurement will start.  It may even be that some fabrication or construction starts before the detailed design is complete. This is an industry specific example of fast tracking.

Conditional logic

See probabilistic dependencies.

Conduct procurements (12.2)

A PMBoK® guide Executing Process that is concerned with obtaining bids from sellers, selecting sellers and awarding contracts.

In Praxis these are all covered by steps in the procurement and contract management procedures.

The ISO21500 equivalent is Select suppliers.

PRINCE2 does not cover this kind of external procurement in any detail.

Configuration

The complete technical description required to build, test, accept, install, operate, maintain and support a system. In this context a ‘system’ could be an IT system, a building, a ship, a set of organisational processes or any other output of a project or programme.

Configuration audit

An audit to check that the information in the configuration item records are consistent within the configuration library and with any information held by the people or teams producing the configuration items.

Configuration item

A component of a configuration that has a defined function and is designated for configuration management.

Configuration item record

A record that describes the development life cycle of an individual configuration item. It will hold information about links to other items, the owner of the item, version control, cross references to change requests etc.

Configuration Librarian

The person whose job it is to maintain the configuration and operate the configuration management system.

Configuration library

The total set of configuration item records.

Configuration management

More:

Configuration management encompasses the administrative activities concerned with the creation, maintenance, controlled change and quality control of products. Its goals are to:

This is also a function in the APM BoK and is covered by the change theme in PRINCE2.

In the PMBoK® guide configuration management is covered in the tools and techniques of Perform Integrated Change Control. ISO21500 makes reference to configuration management but does not describe it.

Configuration management plan

A management plan that describes policies and procedures for managing the configuration items that make up the configuration. Praxis suggests that this will be part of the scope management plan unless the complexity of the configuration requires a separate management plan.

If required, this would be developed during the prepare governance documents activity in the definition process.

ISO21500 doesn’t explicitly mention a configuration management plan but covers the same content, in general terms, in Develop project plans. Similarly, the PMBoK® guide refers to a configuration management plan as part of the project management plan which is produced in the Develop Project Management Plan process.

In PRINCE2 this document is referred to as the configuration management strategy and is produced by the prepare the configuration management strategy activity in the Initiating a Project (IP) process.

Configuration management strategy

The PRINCE2 term for a configuration management plan.

Conflict management

More:

Conflict is most usually perceived as something that is negative and almost invariably having a detrimental impact on the achievement of the project, programme or portfolio objectives. Some aspects of conflict can be used positively and it is important to recognise the difference between conflict management and conflict resolution. The latter is only one aspect of the former.

The goals of conflict management are to:

  • utilise the positive aspects of conflict;
  • resolve organisational and interpersonal conflict;
  • minimise the impact of conflict on objectives.

This is also a topic in the APM BoK.

In the PMBoK® guide conflict management is covered in the tools and techniques of Manage Project Team. ISO21500 makes no reference to conflict management.

Consolidated schedule

A term from the GAO SAG that refers to a consolidation of multiple integrated master schedules. This is effectively a schedule that covers a portfolio of projects.

The guide itself comments that “portfolio schedule and consolidated schedule are often synonymous with integrated master schedule.

Constraint dates

See imposed dates.

Constraints

Restrictions or limitations that apply to a project, programme, stage, work package etc. This could range from legal or regulatory constraints to time and cost limits.

In the context of network diagrams, this is often used as a generic term for factors affecting the possible start and finish dates of an activity including dependencies, imposed dates and resource limits.

Consult

The term referenced by the ‘C’ in RACI. It indicates a need to give individuals or groups a chance to comment and make recommendations on a document or action.

Consumable resource

The most common resources are re-usable i.e. people and machinery.

Some computer packages allow definition of consumable resources e.g. materials. This allows a crude form of stock control to be built into the schedule. As the activities which use the materials are progressed, the amount available will decrease and reports can be produced that trigger re-ordering.

Context

More:

The P3 management context has two aspects that can be likened to nature and nurture, i.e. the initial conditions that define the natural characteristics of the work and the actions that are then taken to manage it.

The nature aspect is referred to as the setting. The nurture aspect is covered in governance and professionalism.

The APM BoK has a very similar contextual foundation.

Contingency

A term used to describe delivery plans or budgets that are prepared to deal with risk events should they actually occur.

The APM PSMC uses the term to refer to a contingency reserve.

See also contingency plan.

Contingency allowance

See contingency reserve.

Contingency budget

See contingency reserve.

Contingency plan

An alternative delivery plan designed to be implemented should a specified risk event occur. Sometimes referred to as a fallback plan.

Contingency planning

The process of developing contingency plans to cover risk events not addressed by other means.

Contingency reserve

A sum of money or time that is included in a budget (and therefore the business case) to deal with any identified risk events that actually occur. The sum of money and time is usually derived from a contingency plan that describes what needs to be done and what resources will be required to deal with the consequences of risk.

Contingent response strategy

The PMBoK® guide term for a contingency plan.

Contract

A mutually binding agreement between two or more parties. In the P3 environment this is usually between a seller or supplier (who is obligated to provide a specified product) and a buyer or customer (who is obligated to pay for it).

Contract management

More:

Contract management includes the negotiation, creation and administration of a contract between two or more parties. Its goals are to:

  • support procurement by negotiating terms and conditions;
  • document contractual agreements;
  • monitor contractual performance;
  • conclude contracts.

The APM BoK has a function called provider selection and management although this focuses more on the selection than the management.

The equivalent in the PMBoK® guide is the tools and techniques contained in the Control Procurements process. In ISO21500 this is known as Administer procurements.

Contract management plan

A statement of how contractual relationships will be managed in a project, programme or portfolio. It must reflect the terms of the contract and highlight key controls such as audits and performance reviews.

Control

More:

Control involves monitoring performance against approved baselines, updating delivery documents and taking corrective action as necessary. Control is required throughout the life cycle but this explanation is primarily aimed at controlling the delivery process.

The goals of control are to:

  • review performance against baselines;
  • evaluate the effect of actual performance on future plans;
  • take action as required to achieve planning targets or agree revised targets.

This is also a function in the APM BoK. The equivalent in PRINCE2 is the progress theme.

Control changes (4.3.6)

Change control is often used just in relation to changes to the scope of a project. This ISO21500 process takes a broader view and deals with any request to modify any aspect of the project.

In the PMBoK® guide the equivalent process is Perform integrated Change Control.

In Praxis the change control function is focused on scope change control, albeit that requests to change scope impact many other aspects of the project. The fully integrated approach comprises change control, the more general control function and the delivery process.

In PRINCE2 the change theme and Controlling a Stage (CS) process achieve the same ends.

Control charts

Charts used to graphically show actual performance against time. Products are sampled and inspected. The chosen performance criterion is plotted against time in order to identify potential problems with the production process. Products exceeding the control limits would trigger a closer inspection of the process. See also RAG reports.

Control Communications (10.3)

A PMBoK® guide process concerned with monitoring and controlling communications throughout the project organisation.

In Praxis this area is covered by the information management and stakeholder management procedures.

There is not a single equivalent in ISO21500. It would be more accurate to say that the Distribute information and Manage communications collectively cover the same ground as the PMBoK® guide processes Manage Communications and Control Communications. (Note: when drawing comparisons it is somewhat confusing that Manage Communications is an Executing Process in the PMBoK® guide  and the process of the same name in ISO21500 is a Controlling process)

PRINCE2 doesn’t have a specific theme for communication and addresses this area primarily through the description of stakeholder engagement in the organization theme.

Control costs (4.3.27)

An ISO21500 process focused on the collation of information related to expenditure, calculating actual costs, preparing forecasts and taking corrective action as required.

Praxis covers this area in the budgeting and cost control function and the co-ordinate and monitor progress activity in the delivery process.

The equivalent process in the PMBoK® guide is Control Costs.

PRINCE2 doesn’t have dedicated cost control procedures or processes and this area should be considered implicit in the review the stage status and review work package status activities in the Controlling a Stage (CS) process.

Control Costs (7.4)

A PMBoK® guide process focused on the collation of information related to expenditure, calculating actual costs, preparing forecasts and taking corrective action as required.

Praxis covers this area in the budgeting and cost control function and the co-ordinate and monitor progress activity in the delivery process.

The equivalent process in ISO21500 is Control costs.

PRINCE2 doesn’t have dedicated cost control procedures or processes and this area should be considered implicit in the review the stage status and review Work Package status activities in the Controlling a Stage (CS) process.

Control limits

Upper and lower control limits on a control chart are used to identify where a process needs to be checked. The control limit is closer to the mean than the specification limit and is used to warn of a process going out of control rather than identifying a product that has failed its quality control inspection.

Control management plan

More:

Control is one of the central functions of project, programme and portfolio management. It is concerned with performing work in accordance with delivery documents and updating them based on actual progress.

A control management plan describes how control should be performed and is particularly important in programmes and portfolios where it ensures that progress information from component projects and programmes is consistent.

Control Procurements (12.3)

This PMBoK® guide process deals with the management of relationships with contracted suppliers. It monitors the performance of both the buyer and the seller and may generate requests to make changes to contracts if appropriate.

The equivalent in ISO21500 is Administer procurements.

In Praxis the nearest equivalent is the monitor step in the contract management procedure which works in conjunction with the control function and the delivery process.

PRINCE2 does not contain processes that explicitly deal with external contracts although the role of the senior supplier in the organisation structure is relevant. Controlling contracts should be seen as implicit in other control functions.

Control project work (4.3.5)

This is the high level integration process in ISO21500 that co-ordinates performance information from the more detailed processes in the controlling process group.

In the PMBoK® guide the equivalent process is Monitor and Control Project Work.

PRINCE2 defines processes that manage the delivery of the project in a different way. At a broad level a combination of the Direct project work and Control project work processes from ISO21500 is equivalent to the Controlling a Stage (CS) and Managing Product Delivery (MP) processes in PRINCE2.

Praxis takes a similar approach to PRINCE2 and the corresponding combination is formed of the delivery and development processes.

Control Quality (8.3)

This PMBoK® guide process monitors and records the results of activities that assess performance. This applies to both the outputs of the project and the processes used to manage their delivery. It is conducted in accordance with the quality management plan.

The equivalent in ISO21500 is Perform quality control.

The Praxis approach sees quality as inherent in all aspects of P3 management rather than a separate topic. Therefore, all references to control (whether they refer to outputs or processes) are manifestations of quality control.

In PRINCE2 quality control is covered by a series of steps in the ‘quality audit trail’ in the quality theme.

Control resources (4.3.19)

This ISO21500 process ensures that the resources required to undertake the project are available and assigned as necessary. Where necessary it will trigger corrective action or change requests.

Given that Administer procurements deals with external suppliers it is fair to assume that this process focuses on internal resources in which case there is no direct PMBoK® guide equivalent.

The equivalent in Praxis is the maintain step in the mobilisation procedure.

In PRINCE2 it is the progress theme as applied by the review the stage status activity in the Controlling a Stage (CS) process.

Control Risks (11.6)

This process from the PMBoK® guide deals with the implementation of risk responses. It covers the tracking of risk events, monitoring residual risks and identifying new risks (and therefore overlaps to some extent with Identify Risks). It is also concerned with evaluating the effectiveness of risk processes.

The nearest equivalent in Praxis is the implement responses step in the risk management procedure although, because of the overlap, elements of other steps are also relevant.

ISO21500’s corresponding process is Control risks.

This aspect of risk in PRINCE2 is primarily covered by the implement step of the risk management procedure in the risk theme.

Control risks (4.3.31)

This process from ISO21500’s deals with the implementation of risk responses. It covers the tracking of risk events, monitoring residual risks and identifying new risks (and therefore overlaps to some extent with Identify risks). It is also concerned with evaluating the effectiveness of risk processes.

The nearest equivalent in Praxis is the implement responses step in the risk management procedure although, because of the overlap, elements of other steps are also relevant.

The PMBoK® guide’s corresponding process is Control Risks.

This aspect of risk in PRINCE2 is primarily covered by the implement step of the risk management procedure in the risk theme.

Control schedule (4.3.14)

This is the ISO21500 process that monitors the status of activities, updates schedules and manages changes to the baseline.

The equivalent in Praxis is the control function as applied by the update and communicate activity in the delivery process.

In PRINCE2 it is the progress theme as applied by the review the stage status activity in the Controlling a Stage (CS) process.

The equivalent in the PMBoK® guide is Control Schedule.

Control Schedule (6.7)

This is the PMBoK® guide process that monitors the status of activities, updates schedules and manages changes to the baseline.

The equivalent in Praxis is the control function as applied by the update and communicate activity in the delivery process.

In PRINCE2 it is the progress theme as applied by the review the stage status activity in the Controlling a Stage (CS) process.

The equivalent in ISO21500 is Control schedule.

Control scope (4.3.14)

This is the ISO21500 process that operates change control in the context of the project’s scope. It works in parallel with other control processes such as Control schedule and Control cost, which are all co-ordinated under the umbrella of Control changes.

The equivalent in Praxis is the change control procedure and in PRINCE2 it is the procedure in the change theme.

The equivalent in the PMBoK® guide is Control Scope.

Control Scope (5.6)

This is the PMBoK® guide process that operates change control in the context of the project’s scope. It works in parallel with other control processes such as Control Schedule and Control Cost, which are all co-ordinated under the umbrella of Perform Integrated Change Control.

The equivalent in Praxis is the change control procedure and in PRINCE2 it is the procedure in the change theme.

The equivalent in ISO21500 is Control scope.

Control Stakeholder Engagement (13.4)

This is the PMBoK® guide process that monitors stakeholder relationships and adjust plans as necessary.

This area is covered in Praxis by a combination of the stakeholder management procedure and the control function.

In PRINCE2 all aspects of stakeholder management are covered in the organization theme.

ISO21500 does not have a controlling process for stakeholder management.

Controlling (ISO21500)

An ISO21500 process group that includes the processes involved in tracking progress and taking corrective action where necessary. These processes can be applied at different levels with the project, i.e. for the project as a whole or for a stage or sub-project.

When viewed from the perspective of the project life cycle, these processes are covered in Praxis by the delivery process and development process.

In PRINCE2 the corresponding process at the project life cycle level is Controlling a Stage (CS) and Managing Product Delivery (MP).

The equivalent in the PMBoK® guide is the Monitoring and Controlling process group.

Controlling a Stage (CS)

This PRINCE2 process manages the delivery phase of the life cycle one stage at a time. Its purpose is to delegate and monitor work, deal with issues and report progress to the project board. It also takes corrective action as required in order to keep the work within agreed tolerances.

The equivalent in Praxis is the delivery process.

In the PMBoK® guide there are three processes that together broadly cover the same area, although the PMBoK® guide does not require delivery to be managed in stages.

Similarly, in ISO21500 this area is covered by:

 

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14.Feb.2017Updated to version 1.3 including the PMI's standard for program management

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