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A pdf of the complete Praxis Comparative Glossary can be downloaded here.

 

From Maccoby and Scudder to Must start on

 

Maccoby and Scudder

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In their book ‘Leading in the heart of conflict’1, Michael Maccoby and Tim Scudder identify a five step process for conflict management. Its component activities have many parallels in P3 management.

 

  1. Maccoby, M. & Scudder, T., (2011), Leading in the heat of conflict.

Make or buy

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At one level, as the name suggests, this is a simple decision about whether to make something in-house or buy it from an external supplier. It also suggests that it only relates to physical products but the principles are equally applicable to services, i.e., should they be provided by in-house resources or external contractors.

Make ready needs

Things, other than dependency links, that must be in place for an activity to start, e.g. specifications, approvals, materials etc.

This is similar to the term definition of ready used in agile.

Manage Communications (10.2)

A PMBoK® guide executing process concerned with creating, collecting, distributing, storing, retrieving and archiving of communications throughout the project organisation.

In Praxis this area is covered by the information management and stakeholder management procedures.

There is not a single equivalent in ISO21500. It would be more accurate to say that the Distribute information and Manage communications collectively cover the same ground as the PMBoK® guide processes Manage Communications and Control Communications. (Note: when drawing comparisons it is somewhat confusing that Manage Communications is an Executing process in the PMBoK® guide  and the process of the same name in ISO21500 is a controlling process)

PRINCE2 doesn’t have a specific theme for communication and addresses this area primarily through the description of stakeholder engagement in the organization theme.

Manage communications (4.3.40)

An ISO21500 controlling process concerned with managing communications throughout the project organisation.

In Praxis this area is covered by the information management and stakeholder management procedures.

There is not a single equivalent in PMBoK® guide. It would be more accurate to say that the Manage Communications and Control Communications processes collectively cover the same ground as the ISO21500 Distribute information and Manage communications processes. (Note: when drawing comparisons it is somewhat confusing that Manage Communications is an executing process in the PMBoK® guide and the process of the same name in ISO21500 is a controlling process).

PRINCE2 doesn’t have a specific theme for communication and addresses this area primarily through the description of stakeholder engagement in the organisation theme.

Manage project team (4.3.20)

This ISO21500 process is concerned with managing individual members of the project team through a variety of interpersonal skills.

The equivalent in the PMBoK® guide is Manage Project Team.

In Praxis, this area is covered by the interpersonal skills such as influencing and conflict management.

PRINCE2 does not go into any detail about the management of individuals.

Manage Project Team (9.4)

This PMBoK® guide process is concerned with managing individual members of the project team through a variety of interpersonal skills.

The equivalent in ISO21500 is Manage project team.

In Praxis, this area is covered by the interpersonal skills such as influencing and conflict management.

PRINCE2 does not go into any detail about the management of individuals.

Manage Stakeholder Engagement (13.3)

This PMBoK® guide process deals with communication and working with stakeholders. Its aim is to keep stakeholders engaged and resolve any issues that arise.

The equivalent in Praxis is the engage step in the stakeholder management procedure.

In ISO 21500 the equivalent is Manage stakeholders.

In PRINCE2 this area is covered by the stakeholder section of the organization theme.

Manage stakeholders (4.3.10)

This ISO 21500 process deals with communication and working with stakeholders. Its aim is to keep stakeholders engaged and resolve any issues that arise.

The equivalent in Praxis is the engage step in the stakeholder management procedure.

In the PMBoK® guide the equivalent is Manage Stakeholder Engagement.

In PRINCE2 this area is covered by the stakeholder section of the organization theme.

Management plans

In Praxis these documents set out the way a function will be managed.

The two main sections cover the policy and procedure of the function with the detail being adapted to the context of the work. This is distinct from a delivery plan, which explains the detail of how a specific piece of work will be delivered.

Policy includes sections on roles and responsibilities, information management, assurance, budget and interfaces to other functions. Procedure begins with defining the steps to be used in performing the function, followed by detailed recommendations on the tools and techniques to be used in each step.

Both the PMBoK® guide and ISO21500 also refer to management plans while PRINCE2 uses the term management strategy.

Management process

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This Praxis process deals with the high level management of a portfolio. The activities will be applied according to the type of portfolio and its context. Its goals are to:

  • assess the suitability of projects and programmes for inclusion in the portfolio;
  • maintain a beneficial and manageable mix of projects and programmes.

Although primarily a portfolio management process, the activities described here are also relevant to the application of the delivery process for large, complex programmes.

Management products

In PRINCE2 the documents used to manage the project are known as management products as opposed to the products that make up the project’s end result, which are known as specialist products.

Management reserve

A reserve of time or cost that is provided to accommodate cost increases or risk events that were not foreseen.

Management stage

PRINCE2 and Praxis both break the delivery phase of the project life cycle into stages. In PRINCE2 these are further described as management stages to emphasise that they are created to facilitate the management of delivery and are not necessarily discrete technical stages.

Management team

Praxis makes a distinction between the management team and the delivery team. The management team includes all those who are responsible for managing the project or programme rather than performing the activities that deliver products.

Managing a Stage Boundary (SB)

Management of the boundaries between stages is PRINCE2’s primary form of go/no go control. This process covers the work that is done as one stage comes to an end and the next is being planned.

The equivalent in Praxis is the boundaries process.

The PMBoK® guide and ISO21500 take a different approach to component phases or stages of a project. Rather than use specific processes for these components of a project, they simply apply the main process model in a scaled down form, i.e. integration processes that closely align to a project life cycle can be applied to an individual phase or stage.

Managing Product Delivery (MP)

The PRINCE2 process that covers the work of the person responsible for a work package, often referred to as a team manager.  It includes the receipt of requirements from the project manager, the execution of the work and the handover of the completed products.

The equivalent in Praxis is the development process.

The PMBoK® guide and ISO21500 do not have separate processes for delegated work. Instead, they take the view that the processes they define can be applied at different levels, e.g. at project level and at work package level. It is up to the project manager to decide how the application of the same processes at different levels should interface.

Managing Successful Programmes (MSP)

The guidance for the management of programmes published by Axelos Ltd. a joint venture company between the UK Government’s Cabinet Office and Capita plc.

MSP is not designed to cover the detailed tools and techniques used in managing programmes. What it is designed to do is provide a consistent and well-structured methodology based on the programme life cycle.

Managing the Tranches

A process from the MSP transformational flow that is concerned with governing the programme and ensuring it remains aligned with corporate strategy.

It also manages the launch, co-ordination and closure of programme tranches with an emphasis on co-ordinating the release of new capabilities into the business (covered by the Delivering the Capability process) and the management of change that will realise benefits from the new capabilities (covered by the Realizing the Benefits process).

Mandate

The term mandate applies to whatever information is used to trigger the initiating process or a project or a programme. It could be a minute in a management meeting, the award of a contract to supply or simply an email from a senior manager.

In PRINCE2 the project mandate triggers the Starting up a Project (SU) process.

There is no obvious equivalent point of conception of the idea that leads to a project in the PMBoK® guide or ISO21500.

Mandatory dependencies

Dependency links that are an inherent part of the work being done. For example, an activity to put a roof on a house must follow the construction of the walls. This is a mandatory dependency.

Deciding to paint the doors before the windows would be a discretionary dependency.

Margerison-McCann

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Charles Margerison and Dick McCann developed their team development profile and team wheel based on the personality theories of Jung. Its advocates cite its basis on psychometric testing as its main advantage over other team profiles such as Belbin.

Margin

MSP describes this as the flexibility that a programme has for achieving its blueprint, benefits and business case.

It seems reasonable to assume that MSP is referring to the degree to which some benefits could be unrealised with the programme still considered a success.

Maslow

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Abraham Maslow proposed his hierarchy of needs in 19431. The theory has been widely accepted and quoted even though Maslow never did any empirical research to support it.

The hierarchy shows a progression of motivational factors. It starts at basic human survival and progress to higher intellectual needs. The hierarchy starts with basic physiological needs such as food, water, oxygen, exercise.  It then progresses through another four levels culminating with self-actualisation which is about satisfying yourself that you have fulfilled your potential. As each of these needs is satisfied it ceases to become a motivator.

 

  1. Maslow A.H., (1943), A theory of human motivation, Psychological Review, 50(4), 370–96.

Matrix organisation

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The matrix organisation gets its name from the fact that projects and programmes cross business-as-usual departments to form a matrix. At the intersections of the matrix are the staff who constitute the resources of both projects, programmes and business-as-usual.

Broadly speaking there are three types of matrix organisation: weak, balanced and strong. These principally apply to projects where the departmental resources make up the delivery team but the same principles may apply to project and programme management teams.

Maximum resource limit

Some computer based resource scheduling methods allow for normal resource limits and maximum resource limits. If activities cannot be levelled within the normal resource limit, the scheduler is allowed to make use of extra resources up to the maximum resource limit.

McGregor

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Douglas McGregor is most famous for his Theory X and Theory Y as described in his book ‘The Human Side of Enterprise’1.

McGregor identified two extreme views of leadership. Theory X managers assume that people fundamentally dislike work and need authoritarian leadership. Theory Y managers assume that people can be ambitious and self-motivated and see their role as developing each individual’s potential.

 

  1. McGregor D., (1960), The Human Side of Enterprise, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Mean cost

The probable cost of an activity as calculated from the optimistic, pessimistic and most likely estimates.

In PERT analysis the mean cost is calculated using a beta distribution.

Mean duration

The probable duration of an activity as calculated from the optimistic, pessimistic and most likely estimates.

In PERT analysis the mean cost is calculated using a beta distribution.

Merge bias

The additional risk that may arise at the points where parallel paths meet in a network diagram.

Merge event

An event in an activity on arrow network which has more than one activity leading into it.

Milestone

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Milestones are useful as a means of focusing on important events within a schedule. They can serve a number of purposes, such as:

  • creating initial high level schedules during the identification phase of a project or programme;
  • facilitating summary schedules for communication with stakeholders during the delivery phase;
  • highlighting inter-dependencies between projects within a programme schedule.

Milestone definition sheet

A sheet that records the details of a milestone, including description, forecast and actual dates, acceptance criteria etc.

Milestone plan

Milestone plans can take a number of different forms. In the early stages of a project, before any detailed scheduling has been done, a milestone plan may be drawn to show the key deliverables of the project and their relationship.

Once a detailed network diagram incorporating the milestones has been developed, a Gantt chart containing only milestones may be the best format.

Milestone schedule

A schedule of dates that shows only milestones. Typically this is used to communicate progress to senior stakeholders.

Milestone slip chart

A form of milestone plan that shows changes in the schedule dates of milestones from one progress update to the next. Useful for seeing trends in progress.

Minimum viable product (MVP)

A version of a product that has the core features that enable it to be deployed by early adopters. It provides a high return on investment and reduces risk.

It can be viewed as a working prototype that is delivered to early adopters.

Mitigation

The process of taking action to counter the effect of identified threats, i.e. the implementation of risk responses.

Mobilisation

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Mobilisation makes sure that appropriate organisational and technical infrastructures are in place for acquiring and deploying resources. It also ensures that these are demobilised when no longer required.

The goals of mobilisation are to ensure that:

  • capital assets are operational and accessible;
  • facilities are operational and accessible;
  • delivery team members are competent and capable;
  • resources are redeployed, returned or disposed of, when no longer required.

The APM BoK also has a function for mobilisation. Neither the PMBoK® guide, ISO21500 nor PRINCE2 directly address the issues covered by mobilisation and demobilisation.

Monitor and Control Project Work (4.4)

This is the high level integration process that co-ordinates performance information from the more detailed processes in the monitoring and controlling process group and develops recommendations that are then input to Perform Integrated Change Control.

In ISO21500 the equivalent process is Control project work.

PRINCE2 defines processes that manage the delivery of the project in a different way. At a broad level a combination of the Direct and Manage Project Work, Monitor and Control Project Work and Perform Integrated Change Control processes from the PMBoK® guide is equivalent to the Controlling a Stage (CS) and Managing Product Delivery (MP) processes in PRINCE2.

Praxis takes a similar approach to PRINCE2 and the corresponding combination is formed of the delivery and development processes.

Monitoring and controlling process group (PMBoK® guide)

A PMBoK® guide process group that includes the processes involved in tracking progress and taking action where necessary. These processes can be applied at different levels with the project, i.e. for the project as a whole or for a stage or sub-project.

When viewed from the perspective of the project life cycle, these processes are covered in Praxis by the delivery process and development process.

In PRINCE2 the equivalent processes at the project life cycle level are Controlling a Stage (CS) and Managing Product Delivery (MP).

The equivalent ISO21500 process group is called simply – controlling.

Montana and Charnov

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Patrick Montana and Bruce Charnov1 set out seven forms of power involved in leadership and influencing in an organisational setting.

 

  1. Montana, Patrick J., and Charnov, Bruce H., (2008), Management, Barron’s Educational Series, Hauppauge, New York.

Monte Carlo analysis

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Monte Carlo analysis uses a three point estimate of the duration for each activity in a network diagram. It then performs multiple critical path analyses to arrive at a range of probabilities for a project schedule.

Morgan

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In his book ‘Images of Organisation’, Gareth Morgan1 identifies eight organisational metaphors.

These metaphors can help understand the nature of an organisation and the best way to manage change within it. Each type of organisation will respond to change in a different way and business change managers in particular need to be sensitive to these different needs.

 

  • Morgan, G (1986), Images of Organisation, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA.

MoSCoW prioritisation

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A form of prioritisation that classifies objectives as: ‘must have’, ‘should have’, ‘could have’ and ‘would like to have’. Some sources suggest the ‘W’ stands for ‘Won’t have’.

Most likely cost

The most likely estimate of cost for use in PERT/ Cost.

Most likely duration

The most likely estimate of an activity’s duration for use in PERT analysis or Monte Carlo analysis.

Mourning

A final additional stage of the Tuckman model where team members may suffer a feeling of loss due to the adjourning of the team.

MSP processes

See transformational flow

MSP themes

MSP themes are aspects of programme management that must be managed throughout the programme life cycle.

These support the MSP transformational flow which provide a structure to implement the themes.

In Praxis the equivalent type of material is contained in the knowledge functions although they are much more comprehensive.

Must finish on

A type of imposed date specifying that an activity must finish on the specified date.

If all previous activities cannot be completed in time this would lead to a path with negative float.

The GAO SAG refers to this with the acronym MFON

Must start later than

A form of imposed start date indicating that an activity must start after the specified date.

Must start on

A type of imposed date specifying that an activity must start on the specified date.

If all previous activities cannot be completed in time this would lead to a path with negative float.

The GAO SAG refers to this with the acronym MSON

 

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14.Feb.2017Updated to version 1.3 including the PMI's standard for program management

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