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A pdf of the complete Praxis Comparative Glossary can be downloaded here.

 

From P2 process model to Plans (PRINCE2 Theme)

 

P2 process model

In Praxis the generic process model for both projects and programmes (hence P2) is based on life cycle phases with an additional process to address the sponsorship function. All these can, and should, be tailored to the specific context of the work.

Each process is supported by competence and maturity definitions that remain relevant even if the Praxis process is replaced with a corresponding process from another guide such as PRINCE2 or MSP.

P3 assurance

The APM BoK topic that deals with assurance.

P3 management

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Project, programme and portfolio management (P3M) is the application of methods, procedures, techniques and competence to achieve a set of defined objectives.

The goals of P3 management are to:

  • deliver the required objectives to stakeholders in a planned and controlled manner;
  • govern and manage the processes that deliver the objectives effectively and efficiently.

Investment in effective P3 management will provide benefits to both the host organisation and the people involved in delivering the work. It will:

  • increase the likelihood of achieving the desired results;
  • ensure effective and efficient use of resources;
  • satisfy the needs of different stakeholders.

P3 management framework

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Project, programme and portfolio (P3) management can be described as a framework of four interconnected elements:

  • Knowledge: Describes the functions that make up the discipline of P3 management.

  • Method: Describes the processes and documentation that are used to manage the life cycle

  • Competence: Describes the knowledge and performance criteria required by individuals involved in P3 management.

  • Capability maturity: Describes the attributes of an organisation as it progresses through 5 levels of capability and maturity.

Praxis addresses all four of these elements in a single integrated framework.

The PMBoK® guide and PRINCE2 cover knowledge and method. ISO21500 focusses on method.

Parallel life cycle

A life cycle where phases are conducted in parallel.

Parametric estimating

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This approach to estimating looks for parameters common to projects of a certain type. It calculates effort and cost for one project or programme based on parametric information from past, similar projects or programmes.

A more detailed example is function point analysis.

Pareto principle

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In 1906 Vilfredo Pareto observed that 80% of the land in Italy was owned by 20% of the population. The principle was adapted to quality management by Joseph Juran who observed that 80% of the faults in a system arise from 20% of the causes. It was Juran who is credited with coining the term ‘the 80-20’ rule. In P3 management this can be applied as a rule of thumb that helps the team focus on the ‘vital few’ in terms of stakeholders, risk events or suppliers to name but three.

Path

A sequence of activities in a network diagram that are connected by dependency links.

Path convergence

Where parallel sequences of activities in a network diagram come together in a single successor activity.

Path float

See shared float.

Payback method

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The payback method is one of the simplest forms of investment appraisal. It is most suited to projects of lower complexity in contexts where liquidity is important. The method is easy to apply and simple to communicate to stakeholders.

Payment methods

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Payment methods define the basis on which a client will pay a supplier for work done or goods or services provided. The main difference between methods is where the risk lies.

Peer review

A review of a project or programme that provides an independent assessment of the management processes and/or products. This kind of review forms part of the assurance function.

Percent complete

The amount of work that has been completed on an activity expressed as a percentage of the current estimate. It is used in conjunction with actual costs and actual effort to predict the eventual cost and duration of an activity. Poor estimation of percentage complete can lead to highly inaccurate progress reports.

Percent complete rule

See earning rules.

Perform Integrated Change Control (4.5)

Change control is often used just in relation to changes to the scope of a project. This PMBoK® guide process takes a broader view and deals with any request to modify a document, deliverable or baseline.

In Praxis the change control function is focused on scope change control, albeit that requests to change scope impact many other aspects of the project. The fully integrated approach comprises change control, the more general control topic and the delivery process.

In PRINCE2 the change theme and Controlling a Stage (CS) process achieve the same ends.

In ISO 21500, the equivalent process is Control changes.

Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis (11.3)

The PMBoK® guide separates the analysis of risk events and overall risk into two processes – one for qualitative techniques and one for quantitative techniques (Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis).

Both Praxis and PRINCE2 combine these in a single assess step in the risk management procedure.

ISO21500 only has one risk analysis process – Assess risks. The text only explicitly refers to qualitative risk but it is reasonable to assume that quantitative risk analysis is implicit in this process.

Perform quality assurance (4.3.33)

This ISO21500 process audits quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements. It facilitates the improvement of quality processes and supports continuous improvement.

The equivalent in Praxis is the assurance function.

The equivalent in the PMBoK® guide is Perform Quality Assurance.

In PRINCE2 assurance is divided into quality assurance and project assurance. In simple terms project assurance provides confidence to stakeholders that the project is being conducted appropriately and properly while quality assurance does the same for the wider corporate or programme organisation.

Perform Quality Assurance (8.2)

This PMBoK® guide process audits quality requirements and the results from quality control measurements. It facilitates the improvement of quality processes and supports continuous improvement.

The equivalent in Praxis is the assurance function.

The equivalent in ISO21500 is Perform quality assurance.

In PRINCE2 assurance is divided into quality assurance and project assurance. In simple terms project assurance provides confidence to stakeholders that the project is being conducted appropriately and properly while quality assurance does the same for the wider corporate or programme organisation.

Perform quality control (4.3.34)

This ISO21500 process monitors and records the results of activities that assess performance. This applies to both the outputs of the project and the processes used to manage their delivery. It is conducted in accordance with the quality management plan.

The equivalent in the PMBoK® guide is Control Quality.

The Praxis approach sees quality as inherent in all aspects of P3 management rather than a separate topic. Therefore, all references to control (whether they refer to outputs or processes) are manifestations of quality control.

In PRINCE2 quality control is covered by a series of steps in the ‘quality audit trail’ in the quality theme.

Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis (11.4)

The PMBoK® guide separates the analysis of risk events and overall risk into two processes – one for quantitative techniques and one for qualitative techniques (Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis).

Both Praxis and PRINCE2 combine these in a single assess step in the risk management procedure.

ISO21500 only has one risk analysis process – assess risks. The text only explicitly refers to qualitative risk but it is reasonable to assume that quantitative risk analysis is implicit in this process.

Performance Domain

The SPgM contains five performance domains. These are high level groupings of functional activity that collectively make up program management. The five domains are:

Performance measurement baseline

The combined baselines for schedule, cost and scope against which performance will be tracked.

In Praxis these are part of the delivery documents, in PRINCE2 they are contained in the project initiation documentation and in the PMBoK® guide and ISO21500 they are part of the project management plan.

Performing

The fourth and final stage of team building in the standard Tuckman model.

Performing organisation

A term sometimes used to represent the company or organisation that is most directly involved in the provision of the resources that are performing the project.

PERT/ Cost

In the same way that the program evaluation and review technique (PERT) uses three estimates for the duration of an activity, PERT/Cost uses three estimates for the cost of an activity. The calculation is the same as that used in PERT but using money instead of time.

Pessimistic cost

The pessimistic estimate of cost for use in PERT/Cost.

Pessimistic duration

The pessimistic estimate of an activity’s duration for use in PERT analysis or Monte Carlo analysis.

PESTLE analysis

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When assessing the context of a project, programme or portfolio there are many different aspects to consider. A common checklist of the external influences to consider comprises:

  • Political.
  • Environmental.
  • Social.
  • Technological.
  • Legal.
  • Economic.

Phase

The terms phase and stage are used to represent elements of the life cycle. Some authorities have stages as part of phases and others vice-versa.

The approach taken in Praxis is that a phase represents an element in the project or programme life cycle. Phases represent parts of the life cycle that have different management needs and can therefore be performed by different management processes, e.g. the identification phase is managed using the identification process and the definition phase is managed using the definition process.

Phase budget

The budget for a specified phase of the project.

Phase-Gate Reviews

The SPgM term for a review performed at the end of a phase. This is not limited to the three program life cycle phases, it also refers to the completion of significant segments of a programme.

Praxis and MSP refer to these significant segments as tranches. Therefore the equivalent of a phase-gate review would be performed as part of the boundaries process in Praxis and the Managing the Tranches process in MSP.

PI table

See probability/impact table.

Plan

A generic term used for a statement of intentions for a project or programme as a whole or for a specific aspect of a project such as a stage or sub-project. Plans generally take one of two forms:

Management plans (e.g. risk management plan or quality management plan) explain how a particular aspect of the project will be managed. These are a statement of policy and intent that set the management standards for the project or programme.

PRINCE2 uses the term strategy instead of plan in this context, e.g. risk management strategy.

Delivery plans (e.g. a stage plan or a team plan) explain the content of a part of the project or programme for the purposes of day-to-day control.

Plan communications (4.3.38)

This ISO21500 process develops the communications plan which schedules activities concerned with stakeholder communication.

In Praxis the equivalent communication plan is produced by the plan communications step in the stakeholder management procedure.

Both the PMBoK® guide and PRINCE2 include the timing of communications activities with the policies and procedures of communications management.

The PMBoK® guide produces its communications management plan in Plan Communications Management and the PRINCE2 equivalent is the Prepare communications management strategy activity in the Initiating a Project (IP) process.

Plan Communications Management (10.1)

This PMBoK® guide process develops the communications management plan that describes the policies, procedures and documents that will be used when engaging with stakeholders.

In Praxis the equivalent document is the stakeholder management plan which is produced during the prepare governance documents activity in the definition process.

The tools and techniques of this PMBoK® guide process explain communications models and in Praxis and the APM BoK these are covered by the communication function.

The PRINCE2 equivalent is the Prepare communications management strategy activity in the Initiating a Project (IP) process.

ISO21500 has a Plan communications process but this is aimed more at planning the actual communications activities rather than policies and procedures which are covered in general terms by Develop project plans.

Plan Cost Management (7.1)

This PMBoK® guide process develops the cost management plan that describes the policies, procedures and documents that will be used to monitor and control project costs.

In Praxis the equivalent document is the financial management plan which is produced during the prepare governance documents activity in the definition process. The main difference is that the Praxis document allows for income as well as expenditure.

PRINCE2 does not have cost specific procedures and simply refers to the management of costs in themes and processes throughout the method.

In ISO21500 policies and procedures relating to cost management are covered in general terms by Develop project plans.

Plan Human Resource Management (9.1)

This PMBoK® guide process develops the human resource management plan that describes the policies, procedures and documents that will be used to manage the project team.

In Praxis the equivalent documents are the organisational management plan for the management team and the resource management plan for the delivery team which are produced during the prepare governance documents activity in the definition process.

The nearest equivalents in ISO21500 are the general references to management planning in Develop project plans and the specific creation of staff assignments and contracts in Establish project team.

PRINCE2 provides a management team structure and roles in the organization theme but does not go into detail on policies and procedures for the management of delivery resources.

Plan Procurement Management (12.1)

This PMBoK® guide process develops the procurement management plan that describes the policies, procedures and documents that will be used to manage the procurement of goods and services.

In Praxis the equivalent document is the resource management plan which is produced during the prepare governance documents activity in the definition process.

The equivalent process in ISO21500 is Plan procurements.

PRINCE2 does not contain specific procurement processes.

Plan procurements (4.3.35)

This ISO21500 process develops the procurement management plan that describes the policies, procedures and documents that will be used to manage procurement of goods and services.

In Praxis the equivalent document is the resource management plan which is produced during the prepare governance documents activity in the definition process.

The equivalent process in the PMBoK® guide is plan procurement management.

PRINCE2 does not contain specific procurement processes.

Plan quality (4.3.32)

This ISO21500 process develops the quality plan that describes the policies, procedures and documents that will be used to manage the quality of both the project deliverables and the project management processes.

Praxis takes the view that quality is not a separate topic but is inherent in all planning and control related topics, procedures and documents.

The PMBoK® guide equivalent is Plan Quality Management, which develops the quality management plan.

The equivalent in PRINCE2 is the Prepare quality management strategy activity in the Initiating a Project (IP) process.

Plan Quality Management (8.1)

This PMBoK® guide process develops the quality management plan that describes the policies, procedures and documents that will be used to manage the quality of both the project deliverables and the project management processes.

Praxis takes the view that quality is not a separate topic but is inherent in all planning and control related topics, procedures and documents.

The ISO21500 equivalent is Plan quality, which develops the quality plan.

The equivalent in PRINCE2 is the Prepare quality management strategy activity in the Initiating a Project (IP) process.

Plan Risk Management (11.1)

This PMBoK® guide process develops the risk management plan that describes the policies, procedures and documents that will be used to manage risk throughout the project.

In Praxis the equivalent document is the risk management plan that is produced during the prepare governance documents activity in the definition process.

In ISO21500 policies and procedures relating to risk management are covered in general terms by Develop project plans.

The equivalent in PRINCE2 is the Prepare risk management strategy activity in the Initiating a Project (IP) process.

Plan Risk Responses (11.5)

This PMBoK® guide process evaluates the identified risk events (both threats and opportunities) and decides how best to respond to them. The project management plan will be updated accordingly.

The equivalent in Praxis is the plan risk responses step in the risk management procedure; In PRINCE2 it is the plan step in the risk theme; in ISO21500 it is Treat risks.

Plan Schedule Management (6.1)

This PMBoK® guide process develops the schedule management plan that describes the policies, procedures and documents that will be used to manage schedules throughout the project.

In Praxis the equivalent document is the schedule management plan that is produced during the prepare governance documents activity in the definition process.

In ISO21500 policies and procedures relating to scheduling are covered in general terms by Develop project plans.

PRINCE2 does not have an equivalent document but there are many common elements in the design the plan step in the plans theme.

Plan Scope Management (5.1)

This PMBoK® guide process develops the scope management plan that describes the policies, procedures and documents that will be used to manage scope throughout the project.

In Praxis the equivalent document is the scope management plan that is produced during the prepare governance documents activity in the definition process.

In ISO21500 policies and procedures relating to scope management are covered in general terms by Develop project plans.

PRINCE2 does not have an equivalent document but there are many references to how scope many be managed throughout the method.

Plan Stakeholder Management (13.1)

This PMBoK® guide process develops the stakeholder management plan that describes the policies, procedures and documents that will be used to manage stakeholders throughout the project.

In Praxis the equivalent document is the stakeholder management plan that is produced during the prepare governance documents activity in the definition process.

In ISO21500 policies and procedures relating to stakeholder management are covered in general terms by Develop project plans.

The closest equivalent in PRINCE2 is the communications management strategy.

Plan the initiation stage

An activity from the PRINCE2 Starting Up a Project (SU) process that plans the execution of the initiation stage of the project.

The equivalent in Praxis is the prepare definition plan in the identification process.

Neither ISO21500 nor the PMBoK® guide have a formal approach to stages built into their processes. The equivalent planning for a stage of a project would simply be the application of the initiating and planning processes at stage level instead of project level.

Plan the next stage

This PRINCE2 activity from the Managing a Stage Boundary (MP) process is triggered as the current stage nears its end. Its output is the next stage plan which will be used to help the project board decide whether or not to approve the next stage.

The equivalent in Praxis is the plan next stage/tranche activity in the boundaries process which works for both project stages and programme tranches.

Neither ISO21500 nor the PMBoK® guide have a formal approach to stages built into their processes. The equivalent planning for a stage of a project would simply be the application of the initiating and planning processes at stage level instead of project level.

Planned cost

See baseline cost.

Planned duration

See baseline duration.

Planned expenditure

See baseline cost.

Planned finish date

Generally used synonymously with the baseline finish date.

Planned start date

Generally used synonymously with the baseline start date.

Planned value

See budget cost of work scheduled.

Planning

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Planning determines what is to be delivered, how much it will cost, when it will be delivered, how it will be delivered, who will carry it out and how all this will be managed. It occurs broadly at two levels: governance and delivery.

The goals of management plans used in governance are to:

  • describe the principles that should be used to manage the work;
  • provide consistency with flexibility across multiple projects and programmes.

The goals of delivery plans are to:

  • describe the objectives of the project, programme or portfolio;
  • define the work required to achieve the objectives and describe how it will be performed;
  • estimate the resources and finance needed to perform the work;
  • document the plans and update them throughout the life cycle.

The APM BoK has a similar planning function.

In PRINCE2, delivery planning is covered by the plans theme. Most management planning is included in the Initiating a Project (IP) process.

In the PMBoK® guide both management and delivery planning are covered by the processes in the planning process group. In ISO21500 the equivalent is also the planning process group.

Planning (ISO21500)

The most extensive process group in ISO21500 containing 16 processes, from nine of the ten subject groups. These processes can be applied at different levels with the project, i.e. for the project as a whole or for a stage or sub-project.

When viewed from the perspective of the project life cycle, these processes are covered in Praxis by the definition process. More detailed planning is covered by the planning function and the plan step of individual functional procedures.

In PRINCE2 the equivalent process at the project life cycle level is Initiating a Project while the details of planning are covered in the plans theme.

The equivalent in the PMBoK® guide is the planning process group.

Planning and control (MSP theme)

MSP brings the functions of planning and control together into a single theme.

This theme explains how planning and control of all aspects of a programme should be conducted.

Planning horizon

The time period for which it is practical to plan accurately. This is the boundary between detailed and outline planning in rolling wave planning

Planning package

Packages of work that are not yet well enough defined to be classed as a work package. These are usually used to define the future work in rolling wave planning

Planning process group (PMBoK® guide)

The most extensive process group in the PMBoK® guide containing 24 processes, from all ten knowledge areas. These processes can be applied at different levels with the project, i.e. for the project as a whole or for a stage or sub-project.

When viewed from the perspective of the project life cycle, these processes are covered in Praxis by the definition process. More detailed planning is covered by the planning function and the plan step of individual functional procedures.

In PRINCE2 the equivalent process at the project life cycle level is Initiating a Project while the details of planning are covered in the plans theme.

The equivalent ISO21500 process group is called simply – planning.

Plans (PRINCE2 theme)

The plans theme covers the preparation of delivery plans at various levels and with specific purposes, e.g. project plan, team plan and exception plan. It focuses on product-based planning and the creation of schedules.

Praxis covers this in the planning and schedule management functions.

In ISO21500 the equivalent subject area is time and in the PMBoK® guide the equivalent knowledge area is project time management.

 

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14.Feb.2017Updated to version 1.3 including the PMI's standard for program management

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