Praxis and the APM BoK v6


The knowledge section of Praxis follows the structure of the Association for Project Management’s Body of Knowledge 6th edition (BoK) very closely.

While the overall structure of Praxis will be very familiar to users of the BoK, each topic has been rewritten and there are a few changes to the structure. These changes were driven by the objective of maximising the integration of the knowledge section with the method, competence and capability maturity and library sections of Praxis.

The rewritten text retains the essence of everything described in the BoK but includes the following enhancements:

  • Most of the functions now have a one-to-one relationship with competencies and capabilities. This ensures the overall integrity of the Praxis framework when being used to develop organisational capability maturity.

  • Each function has a set of goals. These goals provide a common point of reference for functions, competencies and capabilities.

  • Wherever relevant, a procedure is described for each function. This provides additional compatibility with ISO21500 and the PMBoK Guide®.

  • The three separate project, programme and portfolio sections of the BoK have been merged into a single section that better describes the continual progression from simple project to complex project and on to programme and portfolio.

  • The new text for each function makes frequent references to the Praxis method and incorporates many additional references to the tools and techniques described in the encyclopaedia. These references are all hyperlinked to the relevant pages in the framework.

The Praxis approach does not contradict any element of the BoK.


Structural changes

The following tables describe some of the specific structural differences in more detail. 'No change' indicates where the structure is unchanged.

Praxis APM BoK (6th edition) Comparison


1. Context

The content of the context section has been adjusted in Praxis to encompass all the contextual functions that do not have a corresponding competency or capability.


1.2 Setting

No change


1.2.1 Environment

No change

Projects, programmes and portfolios

Projects, programmes and portfolios

The BoK version of this topic is included as an introductory chapter and is not part of the functional structure.



Complexity is not explicitly covered by the BoK but is a concept fundamental to the Praxis view of projects, programmes and portfolios.


1.1 Governance

No change

Project, programme and portfolio management

1.1.1 Project management

1.1.2 Programme management

1.1.3 Portfolio management

The BoK introduces the idea that projects, programmes and portfolios are simply points on a continuum rather than distinct entities.

Praxis takes this concept one stage further by avoiding any separation of the three in the functions and simply describing the difference in terms of increasing complexity.

Life cycle

1.1.6 Life cycle

No change


1.1.8 Sponsorship

No change


1.1.4 Infrastructure

The Praxis support function focuses on the technical and administrative support often provided by a project, programme or support office.

The concept of a PMO (project management office) is akin to the Praxis concept of a portfolio and is covered accordingly by references to the portfolio organisation.

Knowledge management

1.1.5 Knowledge management

No change

Capability maturity

1.1.7 Success factors and maturity

This function has been restructured to accommodate the principle that capability applies to functions, while maturity applies to processes. Success factors are, in effect, the attributes described within the capability maturity model.


2.2 Professionalism

This section has been moved from interpersonal skills to context because the functions are more about the context and do not have corresponding competencies or capabilities.

Communities of practice

2.2.1 Communities of practice

No change


2.2.2 Competence

No change


2.2.3 Ethics frameworks

No change

Learning and development

2.2.4 Learning and development

No change



This section was created in the Praxis structure to encompass all those functions that have a corresponding competency and capability.

Interpersonal skills

2.1 Interpersonal skills

No change


2.2 Communication

No change

Conflict management

2.3 Conflict management

No change


2.4 Delegation

No change


2.5 Influencing

No change


2.6 Leadership

No change


2.7 Negotiation

No change


2.8 Teamwork

No change


3. Delivery

No change

Integrative management

3.1 Integrative management

No change

Organisation management

3.1.4 Organisation

No change

Stakeholder management

3.1.6 Stakeholder management

No change

Business case management

3.1.1 Business case

No change


3.1.5 Planning

No change


3.1.2 Control

No change

Information management

3.1.3 Information management

No change


3.6.1 Assurance

No change

Scope management

3.2 Scope management

No change

Requirements management

3.2.5 Requirements management

No change

Solutions development

3.2.6 Solutions development

No change

Benefits management

3.2.1 Benefits management

No change

Configuration management

3.2.3 Configuration management

No change

Change control

3.2.2 Change control

No change

Schedule management

3.3 Schedule management

No change

Time scheduling

3.2.1 Time scheduling

No change

Resource scheduling

3.2.2 Resource scheduling

No change

Financial management

3.4 Financial management

No change

Investment appraisal

3.4.3 Investment appraisal

No change


3.4.2 Funding

No change

Budgeting and cost control

3.4.1 Budgeting and cost control

No change

Risk management

3.5 Risk management

No change

Risk context

3.5.1 Risk context

No change

Risk techniques

3.5.2 Risk techniques

No change

Change management

3.2.4 Change management

The delivery section of the functional framework lists the fundamental components that need to be managed in projects, programmes or portfolios.

Praxis treats change as one of those fundamental components rather than part of scope management as in the BoK.

Resource management

3.7 Resource management

No change


3.7.3 Procurement

No change

Contract management

3.7.1 Contract

No change


3.7.2 Mobilisation

No change


The following APM BoK topics are not included in the Praxis framework

APM BoK Topic Praxis approach

3.6 Quality management

Quality is inherent in every aspect of P3 management. Everything that a framework like Praxis describes is aimed at achieving quality.

Therefore, while ‘assurance’ has been relocated to governance to better reflect its purpose, other aspects of quality have been distributed across the functional framework. This is an approach first taken by “ISO10006:2003 Quality management systems – Guidelines for quality management in projects.”

3.6.2 Reviews

Reviews are covered by assurance and the Praxis processes.

3.7.2 Provider selection and management

Selecting suppliers (Praxis’s preferred term for ‘provider’) is deemed to be part of procurement.

Managing suppliers is covered by contract management.

1.2.2 Operations management

P3 management works alongside many other disciplines and it is always a matter of judgement where the line should be drawn in a P3 body of knowledge.

Praxis limits the scope of the functional framework to be closer to the scope of the other three parts. It is not considered appropriate for Praxis to describe competencies nor capabilities in these areas. Hence, they have been omitted from the knowledge section.

1.2.3 Strategic management

4. Interfaces

4.1 Accounting

4.2 Health and safety

4.3 Human resource management

4.4 Law

4.5 Security

4.6 Sustainability


The PMBoK Guide® is a trademark of the Project Management Institute.

No history has been recorded.

Praxis and the APM BoK v6

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