R to Re

A pdf of the complete Praxis Comparative Glossary can be downloaded here.


From RACI to Reviewer



An acronym for four types of involvement that might be used to populate a responsibility assignment matrix.

The letters stand for responsible, accountable, consult and inform.

RAG reports


RAG is an acronym for Red, Amber, Green and is a form of report where measurable information is classified by colour. For each colour there is some pre-determined action. This usually constitutes escalation to a higher level of management.

Rapid application development (RAD)


Rapid application development is a software development process that seeks to deliver software applications more quickly and with lower costs than more traditional methods.

The principle of RAD is to limit the amount of time spent on up-front planning and rely on prototypes that are developed into a finished product through a close working relationship between users and developers.

Realizing the Benefits (MSP 4th Ed.)

The process in the MSP transformational flow that encompasses change management and benefits realisation.

The process has three main activities that conform to Lewin’s change model but in this case they are referred to as:

  • manage pre-transition
  • manage transition
  • manage post-transition

The closest equivalent in MSP 5th Ed. is Embed the outcomes

Receive completed work packages

This PRINCE2 activity from the Controlling a Stage (IP) process deals with the project manager’s work involved in receiving a work package from the team it was delegated to in authorising a work package. This will include updates to the quality register and configuration item records.

In Praxis this is covered by the accept completed work activity in the delivery process and in the PMBoK® guide the nearest equivalent is Validate Scope.

There is no explicit reference to the validation or acceptance of deliverables in ISO21500.

Recommend project closure

This PRINCE2 activity in the Closing a Project (CP) process is where the project manager closes the project files and brings the work to an administrative closure. A closure recommendation is sent to the project board so that they can issue a formal closure notification.

In Praxis, this would be performed as part of the demobilise activity in the closure process.

The PMBoK® guide includes this administrative closure in the Close Project or Phase process. In ISO 21500 it is covered by the Close project phase or project process.


One of the four possible threat responses. The PMBoK® guide prefers the term mitigation.

Redundant logic

Dependencies in a network diagram that are duplicated through an alternative path.

Refine the business case

In a PRINCE2 project an outline business case is produced by the Starting Up a Project (SU) process. In the Initiating a Project (IP) process this activity takes the outline version and updates and extends it to form a full business case.

In Praxis this expansion of the business case is covered by the consolidate definition documentation in the definition process.

The PMBoK® guide and ISO21500 do not have a similar two stage process for the development of the business case.


An additional stage that some sources have added to the standard Tuckman model.

This stage represents a repeat forming stage caused by team or project changes.


P3 management requires lists of risks, issues, change requests and so on. The term register is often used interchangeably with log in this context, i.e. a change log and a change register may be regarded as synonymous.

MSP defines a register as a “formal repository” and Praxis also uses the term register to represent a more formal document than a log.

For example, a change log may simply be a log of all informal change requests whereas a change register would have defined format with an accompanying change request form and would be under version control.


One of the four possible opportunity responses.


A product or set of products in a handover. These are managed, tested and deployed as a single entity. Could also be termed a deliverable.

Remaining duration

The estimate of time remaining to complete an activity. A far more useful measure of progress than percentage complete.

Report highlights

This activity from the Controlling a Stage (CS) process covers the development of highlight reports.

In a PRINCE2 project, the project board will be periodically presented with a progress summary for the project and current stage. The frequency for these highlight reports is defined in the communication management strategy.

The equivalent in Praxis is the update and communicate activity in the delivery process.

There is no direct equivalent in the PMBoK® guide or ISO21500. This kind of formal communication between the project manager and sponsor would be part of Manage Communications or Manage communications respectively.

Report stage end

This PRINCE2 activity brings one stage to a conclusion and requests approval for the next stage. It produces an end stage report and a lessons report.

The equivalent in Praxis is the assemble documentation activity in the boundaries process.

Since ISO21500 and the PMBoK® guide are not structured around stages there is no direct equivalent. However, the intention in both guides is that the processes can be applied at different levels, e.g. to a project or a stage within a project. Therefore, the end of a stage in a PMBoK® guide or ISO21500 project would invoke closing processes to close the stage and initiating processes to start the next stage.

Request for change

The PRINCE2 term for a change request.

Request for information (RFI)

A request sent to a supplier to gather information about their capability and interest in bidding for a contract.

Request for proposal (RFP)

A bid document used to obtain proposals from prospective suppliers. Usually synonymous with the terms request for quotation and invitation to tender.

Request for quotation (RFQ)

A bid document used to obtain proposals from prospective suppliers. Usually synonymous with the terms request for proposal and invitation to tender.

Requirements management


Requirements management establishes stakeholders’ wants and needs, and then reviews these to create a set of baseline requirements for use in solutions development and benefits management. Its goals are to:

  • ensure that all relevant stakeholders have the opportunity to express their wants and needs;
  • reconcile multiple stakeholder requirements to create a single viable set of objectives;
  • achieve stakeholder consensus on a baseline set of requirements.

A clear and agreed expression of requirements and their acceptance criteria is essential for the success of any project, programme or portfolio.

Requirements management plan

A management plan that sets out the preferred procedures, tools and techniques to be used in requirements management. This will usually include solutions development as well.

Requirements traceability matrix

A matrix that connects requirements with the products that satisfy them. Used in product validation.


A sum of money or time, set aside to deal with costs that may or may not be incurred. Sometimes referred to as a budget.

See also contingency reserve, change budget, management reserve.

Residual risk

The risk remaining after a risk response has been implemented.


A resource is anything that is required to perform an activity. It could be machinery, materials or manpower.  Resources are inevitably limited and resource limited scheduling activities that take account of these limitations can be a lengthy and involved process.

Resource (ISO21500 subject group)

An ISO21500 subject group that provides a set of processes for managing resources. The processes comprise:

The equivalent in Praxis are the resource management and organisation management functions and their component procedures.

The nearest equivalent in PRINCE2 is the organisation theme.

The PMBoK® guide and ISO21500 share a very similar structure and the nearest equivalent knowledge area in the PMBoK® guide is project human resource management.

Resource aggregation

The process of summing resource demand across activities on a day-by-day, or week-by-week, basis. Usually presented as a histogram.

Resource allocation


Resource allocation (sometimes called resource assignment) is deciding what skills are required to complete an activity and estimating the quantity needed.

An activity may require a single resource or multiple resources. These may be required uniformly for the duration of the activity or may have a fluctuating requirement profile.

Resource availability

See Resource limit.

Resource breakdown structure

A hierarchical representation of resources by category and type. This breakdown structure will contain all resources as opposed to the organisational breakdown structure that only covers members of the management and delivery teams, i.e. human resources.

Resource calendar

A calendar that defines the working and non-working patterns for a specific resource.

Resource code

The code given to a resource that denotes its position in a resource breakdown structure.

Resource histogram


Resource allocation identifies what resources are needed to complete activities and critical path analysis calculates when the activities can be performed. Combining these two sets of data allows the demand for each type of resource to be aggregated over time. This information is typically represented as a resource histogram.

Resource Interdependency Management

A SPgM supporting process from the Program Resource Management topic that co-ordinates of the usage of scarce resources across the program components.

Praxis addresses this in resource scheduling. MSP does not address the scheduling of resources in any great detail.

Resource levelling

The process of rescheduling activities such that the requirement for resources on the project does not exceed specified resource limits. The project completion date calculated from critical path analysis will probably be delayed in the process.

The GAO SAG uses this term (resource leveling in US English) synonymously with resource limited scheduling and does not make the distinction between resource levelling and resource smoothing.

Resource limit

The amount of a particular resource available to the project at a point in time.

Resource limited schedule

The schedule of activity start and finish dates which are calculated by resource scheduling. The opposite to an unlimited schedule.

Resource limited scheduling


Resource limited scheduling is based on critical path analysis but schedules activities according to the availability of resources.

It comprises two approaches: resource levelling and resource smoothing.

Resource management

Resource management covers all aspects of the deployment of resources that deliver the project, programme or portfolio. Its goals are to:

  • determine the best way to resource the work;
  • acquire and mobilise the necessary resources;
  • control resources throughout the life cycle;
  • demobilise resources at the end of the life cycle;
  • finalise all contractual arrangements.

For more complex projects, resource management can be broken down into its component functions:

Resource management plan



A management plan that sets out the preferred procedures, tools and techniques to be used in managing resources.

Resource optimisation

A generic term for resource levelling and resource smoothing. See also resource scheduling.

Resource Planning

A SPgM supporting process from the Program Resource Management topic that determines what resources are needed by the program and how they will be distributed across the program. It also assesses the availability of resources and seeks to avoid over-commitment.

Praxis addresses this in resource scheduling and resource management. MSP does not address the identification and scheduling of resources in any great detail.

Resource Prioritization

A SPgM supporting process from the Program Resource Management topic that prioritises the allocation of scarce resources across the various program components.

Praxis addresses this in resource scheduling. MSP does not address the scheduling of resources in any great detail.

Resource profile

The pattern of fluctuating allocation of a resource on a single activity, i.e. a situation where the allocation of a resource is not constant throughout the duration of the activity.

Resource scheduling


Resource scheduling is a collection of techniques used to analyse the resources required to deliver the work and when they will be required. The goals of resource scheduling are to ensure:

  • efficient and effective utilisation;
  • confidence that the schedule is realistic;
  • early identification of resource capacity bottlenecks and conflicts.

Resource smoothing

The process of rescheduling activities such that the requirement for resources on the project is as smooth as possible whilst still finishing by a specified date. Sometimes referred to as time limited resource scheduling.

Responsibility assignment matrix


A responsibility assignment matrix (RAM) is a chart showing the relationship between people and elements of work. It is created by combining two breakdown structures, the work breakdown structure and the organisational breakdown structure. If required, the work breakdown structure could be replaced with a product breakdown structure.

Responsibility chart

An alternative name for the responsibility assignment matrix.

Responsibility matrix

An alternative name for the responsibility assignment matrix.


One of the four types of involvement (RACI) in a responsibility assignment matrix.

Someone who is ‘responsible’ has the authority to perform an activity or deliver a product. Unlike accountability, responsibility can be delegated.

Responsible authority

A PRINCE2 term for the person or group that commission the project. They have the authority to commit resources and funds on behalf of the commissioning organisation.


See retention.

Retained logic

A term from the GAO SAG relating to activities that are initially started out of sequence with their dependency links.

Where this happens the activity may be halted while its predecessors are completed – thus retaining the original logic.


A sum of money, usually a percentage of the contract sum, retained by the customer from each stage payment, which is paid at the end of the project when the final output is accepted. Known in the USA as retainage.


A regular review that looks at how the process of doing the work can be improved. It is a more frequent and less formal approach than events such as stage reviews or post project reviews.

Return on investment (ROI)

The ‘profit’ made on an investment expressed as a percentage of the cost of investment. E.g. If a project created a benefit with a value of $1,100 and cost $1,000, the ROI would be 10%.

Re-usable resource

A resource that can be used time and time again, e.g. while an item of equipment is reusable, consumable materials are not.


A critical (but constructive) assessment of a product, document, procedure or process.

Review the stage status

This PRINCE2 activity from the Controlling a Stage (CS) process performs a review of the progress of a stage. This involves reviewing many documents such as checkpoint reports, the quality register and the benefits review plan to name but three.

This review will result in updates to documents such as the stage plan, risk register and lessons log. The frequency of stage reviews is defined in the stage plan.

The equivalent in Praxis is the update and communicate activity from the delivery process; in the PMBoK® guide it is the Monitor and Control Project Work process and in ISO21500 it is the Control project work process.

Review work package status

An activity from the PRINCE2 Controlling a Stage (CS) process that monitors the progress of delegated work packages and updates the stage plan accordingly.

The equivalent in Praxis is the co-ordinate and monitor progress activity in the delivery process.

The PMBoK® guide and ISO21500 don’t have the same formal approach to the delegation of work packages. In these guides the management of delegated work is covered by a smaller scale application of the process groups. Communication of progress between different levels in the project structure is therefore implicit within processes such as Monitor and Control Project Work (PMBoK® guide) and Control project work (ISO21500).


In a quality review, the reviewers are the people who are testing the product being reviewed.



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